A Kinetostatic Analysis1 calculates the resultant forces at joints from the motion that is imposed on the mechanism by an idealised power source2. MechDesigner will do the Kinetostatic-Analysis of each kinematic-chain on a Mechanism-Plane.
A Dynamic Analysis is the opposite. It calculates the resultant motions of the mechanism from a force or torque that is imposed on the mechanism. MechDesigner does not do a 'dynamic-analysis'.
1.Force: when we use the word force, it will refer to a generalised force, which will include moments. There are also schools that call these Dynamic-Forces. See Dynamic Forces.
2.An Idealised Power Source (also called Fictitious Power Source) has an infinite capacity to move the parts exactly as given by the planned motion. A simple example of an Idealized Power Source would be a cam-shaft that does not deviate from constant velocity even though the torque required to drive the cam-shaft is changing rapidly.
•Reaction forces at joints
•Reaction forces at anchor points of Springs
•Reaction forces at the contact point between gear teeth flanks, and between a cam-profile and cam-follower.
•The 'Motive Force' to move each kinematic-chain with a predefined motion.
Kinetostatic-Forces are a function of:
•The Motion of Parts: Inertia force, Centripetal force, Coriolis force. We assume the motions of all Parts move exactly as planned.
•The Mass distribution: Centre-of-Mass, Inertia
•External Forces: Spring, Drag, Coulomb Forces
•Gravitational Force – when the Mechanism-Plane is not horizontal
•Which joint gives the 'Power' to the kinematic-chain. See: Why Configure the Power Source
Kinetostatic-Forces do not include:
•Forces that result from impact between colliding Parts
•Forces from the impact after traversal of backlash in Joints, Gear-Pairs or Cam-Tracks.
•Forces from friction at Joints.
•Forces from magnetism, electricity.
•Forces in kinematic-chains that are not kinematically-defined chains
•Forces that are not on the Mechanism-Plane – all forces are made to be coplanar with the Mechanism-Plane
Kinetostatic-Forces are for Ideal Kinematic-Chains:
•Rigid Parts: do not bend, twist or stretch
•Rigid Parts: do not expand with temperature
•Joints: do not have play (backlash)
•Joints: do not have Friction
•All Parts follow the motion design exactly
•Power Source: idealized - it moves exactly as planned
•Contact surfaces at Cams and Gears: do not deflect
•The kinematic-chain: is 100% efficient
•Real Parts: do deflect, twist and stretch
•Rigid Parts: do expand with temperature
•Real Joints: do have backlash, play
•Real Joints: do have friction between each Parts.
•Real Parts: do not move exactly as planned
•Real Motor:s do not move exactly as planned
•Real contact surfaces: do deflect
•Real kinematic-chains: are not 100% efficient.
You may think what is the point in doing a model, because it will deviate from the Real Kinematic-Chain by so much! However,
It is important that you Configure the Power Source correctly for each kinematic-chain before you analyze forces.
You must select from which joint (or cam, or spring, or gear) each kinematic-chain gets its 'power'.
The Moment Vector we show at a joint is the Load Torque at the output-shaft of a Servomotor and Gearbox. When you add a Servomotor and Gearbox, you must also accelerate their inertias, and overcome their friction in addition to the Load Torque.
In MechDesigner, each kinematic-chain has three different possible sources of Power.
The Torque and Force values at each joint are a function of the joint you select for the Power Source.
To illustrate this, we model a four-bar kinematic-chain, arranged as a simple a mechanism (see images below). The angle between each part is 90º. (See the images below). The Mechanism is stationary.
The four-bar includes:
This is a Rocker. It is the vertical Part on the left.
The Rocker has a 1kg mass that is 100mm horizontally to the left of the Pin-Joint made with the Base-Part. Its weight is ~9.81N (1kg * 9.81m/s/s=9.81N).
•an R-R-R Dyad.
There are two Parts: one horizontal, the other vertical and parallel to the Rocker, on the right.
The position of the mass does not change when we move the Power Source from the left to the right.
However, when we move the Power-Source, the resultant Forces at each Joint are completely different.
Simple Mechanism : Power Source at Bottom-Left Joint.
Configure Power Source 1
If we put the Power Source at the Pin-Joint on the left, near to the Mass.
A vertical Force acts at the Pin-Joint of the Rocker of 9.81N, because of the weight of the mass
No other Forces at the other Joints. The other Parts are massless. Thus, in this case, they do not need to resist a force.
0.98Nm Torque that acts at Pin-Joint of the Rocker. We need the torque to balance the Moment of 9.81Nm from the 1kg mass, that is 0.1m horizontal,
We can imagine that the Drive Torque keeps the Rocker in its vertical position.
Simple Mechanism : Power Source at Bottom-Right Joint
Configure Power Source 2
If we put the Power Source at the right Pin-Joint. The Mass does not change from Option 1.
Vertically and horizontally to give forces at the Pin-Joints.
The force due to the mass is transmitted through the kinematic-chain to the motor. The motor holds the mass in position.
Resolve Moments gives the same Moment (Torque), but at the Pin-Joint on the right.