1.Add a 2D-Cam - see: Add 2D-Cam
2.Review the 2D-Cam's Display, Properties, Lifetime - see below
3.Add a Cam-Data FB - see Add Cam-Data FB
4.Link the 2D-Cam to the Cam-Data FB - see Open and Link the Cam-Data FB to a 2D-Cam
5.Analyze 5 different parameters for the 2D-Cam - see Cam-Data FB - Analysis Parameters
6.Calculate the Cam-Coordinates - see Cam-Data dialog-box - Coordinates
Edit the 2D-Cam:
The 2D-Cam dialog-box is now open.
The 2D-Cam dialog-box has two formats.
SHORT Format of 2D-Cam dialog
Radial Clearance (mm) Default = 0
To add clearance between the Cam-Follower Roller and the Cam-Profile.
E.G.1: Groove Cam-Type - you need a small clearance to make sure the Cam-Follower bearing does not jam in the Cam-Groove.
E.G. 2: Conjugate-Cam-Type - you may want a small clearance to compensate for tolerances in the cam assembly.
Minimum Radius Warning (%)
IF abs | (CAM ROC / Cam-Roller radius )| ×100 < Min. Radius Warning %
... the Cam-Profile in the graphic-area becomes RED.
This is a warning for you to inspect your Cam for Undercutting. See also Application Settings
Cam Start: - Default = 0 : Cam Range: Default = 360
Use to display the cam for less than 360 of the Machine-Cycle.
E.g.: If Cam rotates N × in one machine-cycle: Cam Start: 0 ; Cam Range : 360 / N
Stud-type Cam-Followers often have a large negative tolerance - e.g. . You may consider it to be enough, or too much clearance for a Groove-Cam!
Cam-Follower Material Properties
Enter the material properties of the Cam-Follower when you want to calculate Contact-Stress.
Poisson's Ratio (Typical Steel = 0.29)
Elastic Modulus (Typical Steel = 207GPa)
If you do not calculate the Life of the Cam-Follower and Cam, we assume the Poisson's Ratio and Elastic-Modulus of the Cam are equal to those of the Cam-Follower.
If you do calculate the Cam-Roller Life, you select a Cam-Follower bearing. In that case, we use the Material Properties of the Cam-Follower.
See Cam-Life tab
The Power-Source must be correct to calculate the Contact-Stress, and thus the Cam and Roller Lifetimes.
See Configure the Power Source: to make the 2D-Cam be the Power Source for the Follower.
You can display the :
Additionally, you can also display
Click one of these display options:
See also: Cam-Data FB
Line Thickness of Cam : (default =1)
Edit the thickness of the Cam-Profile in the graphic-area
Cam Profile Color :
Edit the color of the Cam-Profile.
Helpful with more than one Cam-Profile in your model.
Show Roller and Cam Lifetimes
If you click Show Roller & Cam Lifetimes check-box, the Dialog will become the EXTENDED format with these two tabs:
•Roller Life tab - see Roller Life
•Cam-Life tab - see Cam Life
Show Instant centers : For the kinemagicians
Show END-Caps : use for Slot-Cams only.
End-caps close the Cam with an arc equal to the Radius of the Cam-Roller.
Cam Display Option:
◉ Cam Profile
Inside and Outside are continuous lines.
Pitch-Centre Path is a dashed line.
◉ Maximum Shear-Stress
Each point around the cam has a unique Maximum Shear-Stress.
Maximum Shear Stress at the contact point
Color of the cam agrees with the color-bar.
Color-bar indicates the scale of the Maximum Shear-Stress.
◉ Contact Force
Contact Force is at the contact point.
Color of the cam agrees with the color-bar
Color-bar as scale of the Contact Force
◉ Pressure Angle
Pressure Angle is adjacent to the contact point
Color of the cam agrees with the color-bar
Color-bar as scale of the Pressure Angle
See also Pressure Angle
EXTENDED format of 2D-Cam dialog
To see the Extended format, you must click
❑ Show Roller and Cam Lifetimes - in the Display tab
To calculate the Roller Life or Cam Life you must use this dialog to select a:
•Roller Manufacturer - see Roller Life tab
•Roller Model and Part-Number - see Roller Life tab
•Cam Material - see Cam Life tab
STEP 1: Click the drop-down to select a Cam-Roller Manufacturer
STEP 2: Select a Cam-Roller Bearing
You can also see immediately the Roller L10 Lifetime.
Cam Roller Lifetime
We also present:
Note: Reliability, and Life Factors,
Before you the Calculate Cam Lifetime, you should also enter:
•Dynamic loading safety factor
•Do Not allow Pitting
Dynamic Loading / Safety Factor
The value for the factor should consider:
•How the Cam-Shaft is driven - from a smooth, constant speed, servo-motor, to single-cylinder diesel engine.
•What the Cam-Follower drives - from a smoothly acting paper tucker, to a forging-press
•The Stiffness, Rigidity, Inertia, Natural-Frequency of the Payload relative to the Speed of the Cam
•The severity of the motion.
Allow Pitting to ~15% of Cam Surface
With Steels and Cast-Irons of Categories 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 11 (See Cam Material below) it is possible that a small amount of pitting will occur and then the pitting will stabilize. This is called non-progressive pitting.
If you allow ~15% pitting, the cam-life is extended.
In mission-critical applications, for example 'manned flight' - you would not allow pitting, of course.
Enter the Hardness as HB, HV, or HRC
STEP 1: Select a Steel Category, Heat-Treatment, and Quality
Steels Categories and Heat-Treatment
There are 14 categories - identically to the ISO 6336-5 Standard for Gears.
1.Normalized, Low-Carbon Wrought-Steelsa - St
2.Normalized, Low-Carbon, Cast-Steelsa - St(cast)
3.Black Malleable Cast-Iron - GTS (perl)
4.Nodular Spheroidal Cast-Iron - GGG
5.Grey Cast-Iron - GG
6.Through-Hardened Wrought Carbon-Steelb - V
7.Through-Hardened Wrought Alloy-Steelsb - V
8.Through-Hardened Cast Carbon-Steel - V(cast)
9.Through-Hardened Cast Alloy-Steel - V(cast)
10.Case-Hardened Wrought-Steelsc - Eh
11.Flame or Induction-Hardened Wrought or Cast-Steels (IF)
12.Nitrided Nitriding Wrought-Steelsd - NT(nitr)
13.Through-Hardened Nitrided-Steelb - NV(nitr)
14.Through-Hardened Nitro-Carburized Wrought-Steele - (NV (nitr-car)
The Steel Quality Standards are
ML - Modest demands on the material quality and the heat treatment process
MQ - Material Quality and Heat-Treatment standards met by experienced manufacturer.
ME - High degree of reliability of Material Quality and Heat-Treatment process.
The requirements to be met for different steel qualities include: Chemical Analysis, Melting Practice, Surface Crack Detection after machining, Hardness must be measured. Sometimes with a test piece of steel that is manufactured, and heat-treated together with cam - See ISO 3663-5
Roughness: Mean peak-to-valley roughness of the Roller and Cam:
Entrainment Velocity :
a - ISO 4948-2 (ISO10020)- Part 2: Classification of unalloyed and alloy steels according to main quality classes and main property or application
b - ISO 683-1 - Heat-treated Steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steel Part 1 - Quenched & tempered unalloyed steels
c - ISO 683-11 - Heat-treated Steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steel Part 11 - Wrought Case Hardening steels
d - ISO 683-10 - Heat-treated Steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steel Part 1 - Quenched & tempered unalloyed steels
e - ISO 683-1, ISO683-10, or ISO 683-11
STEP 2: Enter the Cams' Surface Hardness with the HB, HV, or HRC hardness scale.
The Hardness you enter must be within the Upper and Low Hardness Limits, as specified in ISO 6336-5.
Lower H Limits ≤ HB,HV,HRC ≤ Upper H Limit
When you enter a value with one of the Hardness Scales (HB, HV, or HRC), the other two Hardness Scales update automatically.
We also present:
IMPORTANT: This data is for Cam-Analysis. and NOT for Cam Manufacture.
For Cam Manufacture, see Cam-Data FB - Coordinates dialog-box
Click to save a CSV file-type with the cam-data for further cam-analysis.
The Cam-Data CSV file includes:
The number of data-points (rows) is equal to the Number-of-Steps in the Machine Settings dialog-Box > Number-of-Steps